• B.Ped, Laval University, 1962
  • M.Sc., University of Oregon, 1963
  • Postgrad, Institute for Research on Circulation and Sports Medicine, German Sporthochschule and University of Cologne, 1963-65
  • Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, 1977
  • Postdoc, University of Montreal, 1977

Research Interests

Dr. Bouchard's research interests focus on genetics of obesity and some of the morbidities associated with obesity, including type 2 diabetes and hypertension. He is also studying the role of genetic variation in the adaptation to regular physical activity in terms of cardiorespiratory endurance and changes in cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk factors. His research benefits from several cohorts of human participants, including nuclear families, and relies on physiological, metabolic, and genomics technologies.


Selected Publications

  1.  Pers TH, Karjalainen JM, Chan Y, Westra HJ, Wood AR, Yang J, et al. Biological interpretation of genome-wide association studies using predicted gene functions. Nat Commun. 6:5890, 2015. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6890. PMID: 25597830.
  2. Nsaiba MJ, Lapointe M, Mabrouk H, Douki W, Gaha L, Pérusse L, Bouchard C, Jrad BB, Cianflone K. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients. Neurochem Res. 40(5):906-14, 2015. PMID: 25720829.
  3. Nsaibia MJ, Lapointe M, Mabrouk H, Douki W, Gaha L, Perusse L, Bouchard C, Jrad BB & Cianflone K. Erratum to: C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients. Neurochem Res. EPub Mar 9, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11064-016-1866-4. PMID: 26961885.
  4. Zhu N, Jacobs DR Jr, Schreiner PJ, Launer LJ, Whitmer RA, Sidney S, Demerath E, Thomas W, Bouchard C, He K, Erus G, Battapady H, Bryan RN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity: The CARDIA Study. Neurology. 84(23):2347-53, 2015. PMID: 25957331.
  5. Neufer PD, Bamman MM, Muoio DM, Bouchard C, Cooper DM, Goodpaster BH, Booth FW, Kohrt WM, Gerszten RE, Mattson MP, Hepple RT, Kraus WE, Reid MB, Bodine SC, Jakicic JM, Fleg JL, Williams JP, Joseph L, Evans M, Maruvada P, Rodgers M, Roary M, Boyce AT, Drugan JK, Koenig JI, Ingraham RH, Krotoski D, Garcia-Cazarin M, McGowan JA, Laughlin MR. Understanding the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Physical Activity-Induced Health Benefits. Cell Metab. 22(1):4-11, 2015. PMID: 26073496.
  6. Rudkowska I, Pérusse L, Bellis C, Blangero J, Després JP, Bouchard C, Vohl MC. Interaction between Common Genetic Variants and Total Fat Intake on Low-Density Lipoprotein Peak Particle Diameter: A Genome-Wide Association Study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 8(1):44-53, 2015. PMID: 26112879.
  7. 6. Joshi PK, Esko T, Mattsson H, Eklund N, Gandin I, Nutile T, et al. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. Nature. 523(7561):459-62, 2015. PMID: 26131930.
  8. Bureau A, Croteau J, Couture C, Vohl MC, Bouchard C, Perusse L. Estimating genetic effect sizes under joint disease-endophenotype models in presence of gene-environment interactions. Front Genet. 6:248, 2015. PMID: 26284107.
  9. Bouchard C, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness? Mayo Clin Proc. 90(11):1533-40, 2015. PMID: 26422244.
  10. Sarzynski MA, Davidsen PK, Sung YJ, Hesselink MK, Schrauwen P, Rice TK, Rao DC, Falciani F, Bouchard C. Genomic and transcriptomic predictors of triglyceride response to regular exercise. Br J Sports Med. 49(23):1524-31, 2015. PMID: 26491034.
  11. Bouchard C, editor. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. Volume 135, Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Adaptation to Exercise. Waltham, MA: Elsevier/AP, 2015. 540 pages.
  12. Bouchard C. Adaptation to acute and regular exercise: from reductionist approaches to integrative biology. In: Bouchard C, editor. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 135:1-15, 2015. PMID: 26477908.
  13. Sarzynski MA, Burton J, Rankinen T, Blair SN, Church TS, Després JP, Hagberg JM, Landers-Ramos R, Leon AS, Mikus CR, Rao DC, Seip RL, Skinner JS, Slentz CA, Thompson PD, Wilund KR, Kraus WE, Bouchard C. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: A meta-analysis of 10 interventions. Atherosclerosis. 243(2):364-72, 2015. PMID: 26520888.
  14. Winkler TW, Justice AE, Graff M, Barata L, Feitosa MF, Chu S, et al. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study. PLoS Genet. 11(10):e1005378, 2015. PMID: 26426971.
  15. Wrinkler, TW, Justice, AE, Graff, M, Barata, L, Feitosa, MF, Chu, S, et al. Correction: The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study. PLoS Genet. 12(6):e1006166, 2016. PMID: 27355579.
  16.  Webborn N, Williams A, McNamee M, Bouchard C, Pitsiladis Y, Ahmetov I, Ashley E, Byrne N, Camporesi S, Collins M, Dijkstra P, Eynon N, Fuku N, Garton FC, Hoppe N, Holm S, Kaye J, Klissouras V, Lucia A, Maase K, Moran C, North KN, Pigozzi F, Wang G. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement. Br J Sports Med. 49(23):1486-91, 2015. PMID: 26582191.
  17. Bouchard C. Exercise genomics--a paradigm shift is needed: a commentary. Br J Sports Med. 49(23):1492-96, 2015. PMID: 26429807.
  18. Shah RV, Murthy VL, Colangelo LA, Reis J, Venkatesh BA, Sharma R, Abbasi SA, Goff DC, Jr., Carr JJ, Rana JS, Terry JG, Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA, Eisman A, Neilan T, Das S, Jerosch-Herold M, Lewis CE, Carnethon M, Lewis GD, Lima JA. Association of Fitness in Young Adulthood with Survival and Cardiovascular Risk: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. JAMA Intern Med. 176(1):87–95, 2016. PMID: 26618471.
  19. Pitsiladis YP, Tanaka M, Eynon N, Bouchard C, North KN, Williams AG, Collins M, Moran CN, Britton SL, Fuku N, Ashley EA, Klissouras V, Lucia A, Ahmetov, II, de Geus E & Alsayrafi M. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance. Physiol Genomics. 48(3):183–90, 2016. PMID: 26715623.
  20. Rankinen T, Fuku N, Wolfarth B, Wang G, Sarzynski MA, Alexeev DG, Ahmetov, II, Boulay MR, Cieszczyk P, Eynon N, Filipenko ML, Garton FC, Generozov EV, Govorun VM, Houweling PJ, Kawahara T, Kostryukova ES, Kulemin NA, Larin AK, Maciejewska-Karlowska A, Miyachi M, Muniesa CA, Murakami H, Ospanova EA, Padmanabhan S, Pavlenko AV, Pyankova ON, Santiago C, Sawczuk M, Scott RA, Uyba VV, Yvert T, Perusse L, Ghosh S, Rauramaa R, North KN, Lucia A, Pitsiladis Y & Bouchard C. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes. PloS One. 11(1):e0147330, 2016. PMID: 26824906.
  21.  Lu Y, Day FR, Gustafsson S, Buchkovich ML, Na J, Bataille V, et al. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. Nat Commun. 7:10495, 2016. PMID: 26833246.
  22. Kilpelainen TO, Carli JF, Skowronski AA, Sun Q, Kriebel J, Feitosa MF, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels. Nat Commun. 7:10494, 2016. PMID: 26833098.
  23. Sung YJ, Pérusse L, Sarzynski MA, Fornage M, Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Rice T, Terry JG, Jacobs DR Jr, Katzmarzyk P, Curran JE, Jeffrey Carr J, Blangero J, Ghosh S, Després JP, Rankinen T, Rao DC, Bouchard C. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat. Int J Obes (Lond). 40(4):662-74, 2016. PMID: 26480920.
  24. Sarzynski MA, Loos RJ, Lucia A, Perusse L, Roth SM, Wolfarth B, Rankinen T, Bouchard C. Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2015. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 48(10):1906-16, 2016. PMID: 27183119.
  25. Sung YJ, Winkler TW, Manning AK, Aschard H, Gudnason V, Harris TB, Smith AV, Boerwinkle E, Brown MR, Morrison AC, Fornage M, Lin LA, Richard M, Bartz TM, Psaty BM, Hayward C, Polasek O, Marten J, Rudan I, Feitosa MF, Kraja AT, Province MA, Deng X, Fisher VA, Zhou Y, Bielak LF, Smith J, Huffman JE, Padmanabhan S, Smith BH, Ding J, Liu Y, Lohman K, Bouchard C, Rankinen T, Rice TK, Arnett D, Schwander K, Guo X, Palmas W, Rotter JI, Alfred T, Bottinger EP, Loos RJ, Amin N, Franco OH, van Duijn CM, Vojinovic D, Chasman DI, Ridker PM, Rose LM, Kardia S, Zhu X, Rice K, Borecki IB, Rao DC, Gauderman WJ & Cupples LA. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G x E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group. Genet Epidemiol. 40(5):404-15, 2016. PMID: 27230302.
  26. Ried JS, Jeff MJ, Chu AY, Bragg-Gresham JL, van Dongen J, Huffman JE, et al. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape in >170,000 individuals of the GIANT Consortium. Nat Commun. 7:13357, 2016. PMID: 27876822.
  27. Liu C, Kraja AT, Smith JA, Brody JA, Franceschini N, Bis JC, et al. Meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants influencing blood pressure and overlapping with metabolic trait loci. Nat Genet. 48(10):1162-70, 2016. PMID: 27618448.
  28. Sarzynski MA, Ghosh S, Bouchard C. Genomic and transcriptomic predictors of response levels to endurance exercise training. J Physiol. 595(9):2931-2939, 2017. PMID: 27234805.
  29. Justice AE, Winkler TW, Feitosa MF, Graff M, Fisher VA, Young K, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits. Nat Commun. 8:14977, 2017. PMID: 28443625.
  30. Graff M, Scott RA, Justice AE, Young KL, Feitosa MF, Barata L, et al. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults. PLoS Genet 13(4):e1006528, 2017. PMID: 28448500.
  31. Ghosh S, Bouchard C. Convergence between biological, behavioural and genetic determinants of obesity. Nature Review Genetics, 18: 731-748, 2017. PMID: 28989171.
  32. Clarke K, Ricciardi S, Pearson T, Bharudin I, Davidsen PK, Bonomo M, Brina D, Scagliola A, Simpson DM, Beynon RJ, Khanim F, Ankers J, Sarzynski MA, Ghosh S, Pisconti A, Rozman J, Hrabe de Angelis M, Bunce C, Stewart C, Egginton S, Caddick M, Jackson M, Bouchard C, Biffo S, and F Falciani. The role of Eif6 in skeletal muscle homeostasis revealed by endurance training co-expression networks. Cell Reports, 21:1507-1529, 2017. PMID: 29117557.
  33. He Z, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Skinner JA, Tchernof A, Bouchard C. Plasma steroids and cardiorespiratory fitness response to regular exercise. In: Spiegelman B (Ed.), Hormones, Metabolism and the Benefits of Exercise. Springer Nature: Cham, Switzerland, 2017, pp 25-42.
  34. Ghoshal S, Stevens JR, Billon C, Girardet C, Sitaula S, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Rankinen T, Bouchard C, Nunez MV, Stanhope KL, Howatt DA, Daugherty A, Zhang J, Schuelke M, Weiss EP, Coffey AR, Bennett BJ, Sethupathy P, Burris TP, Havel PJ, and Butler AA. Adropin: An endocrine link between the biological clock and cholesterol homeostasis. Mol Metab 8: 51-64, 2018. PMID: 29331507.
  35. Lightfoot JT, DE Geus EJC, Booth FW, Bray MS, M DENH, Kaprio J, Kelly SA, Pomp D, Saul MC, Thomis MA, Garland T, Jr., and Bouchard C. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC. Med Sci Sports Exerc 50: 863-873, 2018. PMID: 29166322.
  36. Bouchard C. Can weight control and regular physical activity increase survival in CHD patients? Journal Am College Cardiology, 71: 1102-1104, 2018. PMID: 29519350
  37. He Z, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Tchernof A, Bouchard C. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training. Int J Obes (Lond), 42: 1366-1377, 2018. PMID: 29507393.
  38. Sung YJ, Winkler TW, de Las Fuentes L, Bentley AR, Brown MR, Kraja AT, et al. A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure. Am J Hum Genet 102: 375-400, 2018. PMID: 29455858.
  39. Jacob R, Drapeau V, Tremblay A, Provencher V, Bouchard C, Perusse L. The role of eating behavior traits in mediating genetic susceptibility to obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 108(3):445-52, 2018. PMID: 29982344.
  40. Feitosa MF, Kraja AT, Chasman DI, Sung YJ, Winkler TW, Ntalla I, et al. Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries. PLoS One 13(6):e0198166, 2018. PMID: 29912962.
  41. Barber JL, Kraus WE, Church TS, Hagberg JM, Thompson PD, Bartlett DB, Beets MW, Earnest CP, Huffman KM, Landers-Ramos RQ, Leon AS, Rao DC, Seip RL, Skinner JS, Slentz CA, Wilund KR, Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA. Effects of Regular Endurance Exercise on GlycA: Combined Analysis of 14 Exercise Interventions. Atherosclerosis 277:1-6, 2018. PMID: 30170218. PMCID: PMC6298739.
  42. He Z, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Skinner J, Tchernof A, Bouchard C. Plasma steroids are not associated with resting and exercise blood pressure. Int J Sports Med. 39(13):967-71, 2018. PMID: 30290373.
  43. 41. Bouchard C, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Physical activity and the development of obesity. In T. Wadden and G.A. Bray (Eds.). Handbook of Obesity Treatment, 2nd Edition. Guilford Press, New York. pp.105-122, 2018.
  44. Merino J, Dashti HS, Li SX, Sarnowski C, Justice AE, Graff M, et al. Genome-wide Meta-Analysis of Macronutrient Intake of 91,114 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Molecular Psychiatry. Dec 2019;24(12):1920-32. PMID: 29988085. PMCID: PMC6326896.
  45. Silbernagel G, Scharnagl H, Kleber ME, Delgado G, Stojakovic T, Laaksonen R, Erdmann J, Rankinen T, Bouchard C, Landmesser U, Schunkert H, Marz W, Grammer TB. LDL triglycerides, hepatic lipase activity, and coronary artery disease: An epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization study. Atherosclerosis. 282:37-44, 2019. PMID: 30685440.
  46. Ghosh S, Hota M, Chai X, Kiranya J, Ghosh P, He Z, Ruiz-Ramie JJ, Sarzynski MA, Bouchard C. Exploring the underlying biology of intrinsic cardiorespiratory fitness through integrative analysis of genomic variants and muscle gene expression profiling. J Appl Physiol (1985). 126:1292-314, 2019. PMID: 30605401.
  47. Castro A, Duft RG, Ferreira MLV, Andrade ALL, Gaspari AF, Silva LM, Oliveira-Nunes SG, Cavaglieri CR, Ghosh S, Bouchard C, Chacon-Mikahil MPT. Association of skeletal muscle and serum metabolites with maximum power output gains in response to continuous endurance or high-intensity interval training programs: The times study - a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 14(2):e0212115, 2019. PMID: 30742692.
  48. Ross R, Goodpaster BH, Koch LG, Sarzynski MA, Kohrt WM, Johannsen NM, Skinner JS, Castro A, Irving BA, Noland RC, Sparks LM, Spielmann G, Day AG, Pitsch W, Hopkins WG, Bouchard C. Precision exercise medicine: Understanding exercise response variability. Br J Sports Med. 53(18):1141-1153, 2019. PMID: 30862704.
  49. Bentley AR, Sung YJ, Brown MR, Winkler TW, Kraja AT, Ntalla I, et al. Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids. Nat Genet. 2019;51(4):636-48. PMID: 30926973.
  50. de Vries PS, Brown MR, Bentley AR, Sung YJ, Winkler TW, Ntalla I, et al. Multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of lipid levels incorporating gene-alcohol interactions. Am J Epidemiol. 2019;188(6):1033-1054. PMID: 30698716. PMCID: PMC6545280.
  51. Robbins JM, Herzig M, Morningstar J, Sarzynski MA, Cruz DE, Wang TJ, Gao Y, Wilson JG, Bouchard C, Rankinen T, Gerszten RE. Association of dimethylguanidino valeric acid with partial resistance to metabolic health benefits of regular exercise. JAMA Cardiol. 2019;4(7):636-643. PMID: 31166569. PMCID: PMC6551586
  52. Barber JL, Zellars KN, Barringhaus KG, Bouchard C, Spinale FG, Sarzynski MA. The effects of regular exercise on circulating cardiovascular-related microRNAs. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):7527. PMID: 31101833.
  53. Sluik D, Brouwer-Brolsma EM, Berendsen AAM, Mikkila V, Poppitt SD, Silvestre MP, Tremblay A, Perusse L, Bouchard C, Raben A, Feskens EJM. Protein intake and the incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in 4 population-based studies: The PREVIEW project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109:1310-1318. PMID: 31051510.
  54. Bouchard C. DNA sequence variations contribute to variability in fitness and trainability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51(8):1781-1785. PMID: 31305368.
  55. Sung YJ, de Las Fuentes L, Winkler TW, Chasman DI, Bentley AR, Kraja AT, et al. A multi-ancestry genome-wide study incorporating gene-smoking interactions identifies multiple new loci for pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure. Hum Mol Genet. 2019;28(15):2615-2633. PMID: 31127295. PMCID: PMC6644157.
  56. Clark DW, Okada Y, Moore KHS, Mason D, Pirastu N, Gandin I, et al. Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):4957. PMID: 31673082. PMCID: PMC6823371.
  57. de Toro-Martín J, Guénard F, Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Pérusse L, Vohl MC. The Challenge of Stratifying Obesity: Attempts in the Quebec Family Study. Front Genet. 2019;10:994. PMID: 31649740. PMCID: PMC6796792.
  58. Williams SA, Kivimaki M, Langenberg C, Hingorani AD, Casas JP, Bouchard C, Jonasson C, Sarzynski MA, Shipley MJ, Alexander L, Ash J, Bauer T, Chadwick J, Datta G, DeLisle RK, Hagar Y, Hinterberg M, Ostroff R, Weiss S, Ganz P, Wareham NJ. Plasma protein patterns as comprehensive indicators of health. Nat Med. 2019;25:1851-1857. PMID: 31792462. PMCID: PMC6922049.
  59. Noordam R, Bos MM, Wang H, Winkler TW, Bentley AR, Kilpelainen TO, et al. Multi-ancestry sleep-by-snp interaction analysis in 126,926 individuals reveals lipid loci stratified by sleep duration. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):5121. PMID: 31719535. PMCID: PMC6851116
  60. Bouchard C. Exercise Genomics, Epigenomics, and Transcriptomics: A Reality Check! In J.T. Lightfoot, M.J. Hubal, and S.M. Roth (Eds.). Routledge Handbook of Sport and Exercise Systems Genetics. Routledge, New York. pp.487-493, 2019.
  61. Wu P, Rybin D, Bielak LF, Feitosa MF, Franceschini N, Li Y, Lu Y, Marten J, Musani SK, Noordam R, Raghavan S, Rose LM, Schwander K, Smith AV, Tajuddin SM, Vojinovic D, Amin N, Arnett DK, Bottinger EP, Demirkan A, Florez JC, Ghanbari M, Harris TB, Launer LJ, Liu J, Liu J, Mook-Kanamori DO, Murray AD, Nalls MA, Peyser PA, Uitterlinden AG, Voortman T, Bouchard C, Chasman D, Correa A, de Mutsert R, Evans MK, Gudnason V, Hayward C, Kao L, Kardia SLR, Kooperberg C, Loos RJF, Province MM, Rankinen T, Redline S, Ridker PM, Rotter JI, Siscovick D, Smith BH, van Duijn C, Zonderman AB, Rao DC, Wilson JG, Dupuis J, Meigs JB, Liu CT, Vassy JL. Smoking-by-genotype interaction in type 2 diabetes risk and fasting glucose. PLoS One. 2020;15(5):e0230815. PMID: 32379818. PMCID: PMC7205201.
  62. Murthy VL, Xia R, Baldridge AS, Carnethon MR, Sidney S, Bouchard C, Sarzynski MA, Lima JAC, Lewis GD, Shah SJ, Fornage M, Shah RV. Polygenic risk, fitness, and obesity in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (cardia) study. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(3):40-48. PMID: 31913407. PMCID: PMC6990863.
  63. de Las Fuentes L, Sung YJ, Noordam R, Winkler T, Feitosa MF, Schwander K, et al. Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci. Mol Psychiatry. 2020. Online ahead of print. PMCID: PMC7641978. PMID: 32372009.
  64. Bray GA, Bouchard C. The biology of human overfeeding: A systematic review. Obes Rev. 2020;21(9):e13040. PMID: 32515127.
  65. Ferri Marini C, Sisti D, Leon AS, et al. HRR and VO2R fractions Are Not Equivalent: Is It time to Rethink Aerobic Exercise Prescription Methods? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2020;53(1):174-182. PMID: 32694364.
  66. Sarzynski MA, Bouchard C. World-class athletic performance and genetic endowment. Nat Metab. 2020;2(9):796-798. PMID: 32943784.
  67. Vellers HL, et al. Association between Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variants and VO2max Trainability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021;52(11): 2303-2309. PMID: 33064405.